So I have read this amazing lesson before: Generator Tricks for System Programmers, and I thought I would write up a quick example to show the effect of the “pipeline” that strings of generators set up. No long tutorial here, just a simple example.

Here we have three functions, each one performing some numeric operation on each entry in a list of numbers:

```
>>> def plus_one_half(nums):
... for num in nums:
... print("adding 1/2 to {num}".format(num=num))
... yield (num + 0.5)
>>> def double(nums):
... for num in nums:
... print("doubling {num}".format(num=num))
... yield (num * 2)
>>> def cube(nums):
... for num in nums:
... print("cubing {num}".format(num=num))
... yield (num ** 3)
```

Notice that all of them are actually generators (not functions), as they use the yield keyword instead of return.

When we set up a generator pipeline, we can see how each value is only retrieved when it is needed:

```
>>> for result in double(cube(plus_one_half(xrange(10)))):
... print("result is {result}".format(result=result))
... print("---")
```

This prints out:

```
adding 1/2 to 0
cubing 0.5
doubling 0.125
result is: 0.25
---
adding 1/2 to 1
cubing 1.5
doubling 3.375
result is: 6.75
---
adding 1/2 to 2
cubing 2.5
doubling 15.625
result is: 31.25
---
adding 1/2 to 3
cubing 3.5
doubling 42.875
result is: 85.75
---
adding 1/2 to 4
cubing 4.5
doubling 91.125
result is: 182.25
---
adding 1/2 to 5
cubing 5.5
doubling 166.375
result is: 332.75
---
adding 1/2 to 6
cubing 6.5
doubling 274.625
result is: 549.25
---
adding 1/2 to 7
cubing 7.5
doubling 421.875
result is: 843.75
---
adding 1/2 to 8
cubing 8.5
doubling 614.125
result is: 1228.25
---
adding 1/2 to 9
cubing 9.5
doubling 857.375
result is: 1714.75
---
```

Here we can clearly see how each generator runs until it yields, then passes control to the next generator in the pipeline. Neat!

If you did this without generators, you would have to change the functions to build and return lists.

(Actually, you would probably use list comprehensions, but we are going to do it this way so we can still easily include the call to print)

```
>>> def plus_one_half(nums):
... result = []
... for num in nums:
... print("adding 1/2 to {num}".format(num=num))
... result.append(num + 0.5)
... return result
>>> def double(nums):
... result = []
... for num in nums:
... print("doubling {num}".format(num=num))
... result.append(num * 2)
... return result
>>> def cube(nums):
... result = []
... for num in nums:
... print("cubing {num}".format(num=num))
... result.append(num ** 3)
... return result
```

The code is similar, except now we need a list to store the results of the computations in each function. It also means that instead of generating a value and then passing control to the next function, each function performs it’s transformation on the entire list of numbers before returning, as we can see here:

```
>>> for result in double(cube(plus_one_half(xrange(10)))):
... print("result is {result}".format(result=result))
... print("---")
```

and the results:

```
adding 1/2 to 0
adding 1/2 to 1
adding 1/2 to 2
adding 1/2 to 3
adding 1/2 to 4
adding 1/2 to 5
adding 1/2 to 6
adding 1/2 to 7
adding 1/2 to 8
adding 1/2 to 9
cubing 0.5
cubing 1.5
cubing 2.5
cubing 3.5
cubing 4.5
cubing 5.5
cubing 6.5
cubing 7.5
cubing 8.5
cubing 9.5
doubling 0.125
doubling 3.375
doubling 15.625
doubling 42.875
doubling 91.125
doubling 166.375
doubling 274.625
doubling 421.875
doubling 614.125
doubling 857.375
result is: 0.25
---
result is: 6.75
---
result is: 31.25
---
result is: 85.75
---
result is: 182.25
---
result is: 332.75
---
result is: 549.25
---
result is: 843.75
---
result is: 1228.25
---
result is: 1714.75
---
```

As a result of these differences, the generator pipeline needs to keep much less information in memory at any given time than the list example.

- Paul Woolcock, 18 Mar 2013

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